R.A. Fisher and Karl Person
Founders of modern applied statistics
R.A. Fisher (1890-1962)
- Revolutionized statistics with the concept of “likelihood,” and maximum likelihood parameter estimation rather than “method of moments.”
- Stated that the “Information” contained in a random sample is inversely related to its variance.
- Wrote the first book on Design-of-Experiments.
- Corrected the inventor of the Chi-square test statistic, introducing the concept of degrees-of-freedom.
- Formalized “Student’s” ideas on the influence of small sample sizes.
Karl Pearson (1857-1936)
- Developed the “Method of Moments,” for estimating statistical model parameters by equating the empirical monents with the corresponding theoretical ones.
- Chi distance. A precursor and special case of the Mahalanobis distance
- p-value. (Unfortunately, very often misused)
- Suggested the foundations of the statistical hypothesis testing and statistical decision theory
- Invented Pearson’s chi-squared test.
- Suggested rudimentary principal component analysis.